Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur when germs from the skin or rectum enter the urethra and infect the urinary system. Several parts of the urinary tract can get infected, but the most common type is a bladder infection (cystitis). Another type of UTI is pyelonephritis, an infection of the kidneys. They happen less often than bladder infections but are more dangerous.
Bacterial infections of the urinary tract are common among women. Most of the time, they happen between the ages of 16 and 35, and 10% of women get one yearly. Between 40% and 60% of women will get one at least once. Most people get a second infection within a year, and almost half get it within six months. Urinary tract infections happen to women at least four times more often than men due to their shorter urethra, so bacteria have faster access.
Other reasons that can make a person more likely to get a UTI:
Some of the signs of a urinary tract infection are:
Urinary tract infections are diagnosed using the following tests:
The doctor may perform the following diagnostic procedures to check for disease or injury in the urinary system if the infection does not respond to therapy or if there are recurrent infections.
Doctors will choose the most appropriate antibiotics that kill the bacteria causing the infection. Antibiotics include:
Children with UTI can take liquid paracetamol to improve pain symptoms. Adults should take up to four regular doses of paracetamol per day for pain and fever relief; this is because NSAIDs like ibuprofen and aspirin are not suggested for people with a UTI. Other steps to take are the following:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2022). Urinary Tract Infection. Retrieved December 22, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/uti.html
Cleveland Clinic (2022). Urinary Tract Infections. Retrieved December 22, 2022, from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/9135-urinary-tract-infections
National Health Services (2022). Urinary tract infections (UTIs). Retrieved December 22, 2022, from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/urinary-tract-infections-utis/