Osteoporosis is diagnosed using a test called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which is used to measure how dense one’s bones are. A doctor may also order other blood and urine tests if there are other suspected problems such as hormone imbalances.
Treatment of osteoporosis is aimed at slowing down the bone loss and lowering the risk for bone fractures. This usually involves changes in lifestyle, like:
• Eating a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D
• Stopping/avoiding cigarette smoking
• Limiting alcohol intake
• Exercising regularly, especially weight-bearing and strength-training exercises
Medications, like bisphosphonates, and parathyroid hormone therapy also help prevent bone loss and increase bone density. In addition to these two, individuals with osteoporosis also need safety precautions since they have a higher chance of breaking their bones when they fall or trip. Strategies include removing loose wires and clutter at home, placing grab bars inside bathrooms, making sure the house is well-lit, and wearing sturdy, rubber-soled shoes.